Surgical Resident Training Using Real-Time Simulation of Cardiopulmonary Bypass Physiology with Echocardiography



With increasing complexity of medical care and continuing limitations on medical education, the use of simulation is becoming ever more important. Several simulators have been developed to teach procedural-based surgical tasks. The care of the cardiac surgical patient requires an in-depth understanding of physiology, particularly as pertains to cardiopulmonary bypass. We describe the use of the Human Patient Simulator (HPS) to teach perioperative fundamentals to surgical residents.

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